An inherent problem in comparing differences in presynaptic pharmacology between glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons is the diversity in GABAergic interneuron subtypes. Interneurons modulate nearly every aspect of neuronal excitability and network function with cell type-specific roles. Thus, understanding cell-specific anesthetic actions on interneuron output is critical to understanding the neurophysiology of the anesthetized state.
PV⁺ neuron identified by immunolabeling (left). SST⁺ axon, transfected with
syn-pH (yellow) in SST::Ai14 cultures (right).